Perspectives to fight viruses. The example of Sars-CoV-2

Published: October 7, 2022
Abstract Views: 191
PDF: 13
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

  • Costas Demetzos demetzos@pharm.uoa.gr School of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Section of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
  • Panagiotis Vlamos Department of Informatics, Ionian University, Corfu, Greece.
  • Dimitrios Vlachakis Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biotechnology, School of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece.

Coronaviruses well studied in the past provide scientific tools and knowledge that is used for identifying the molecular basis of the new SARS-CoV-2. It belongs to complex systems and its evolution and mutations must be observed under the lens of the nonlinearity as it is far from the equilibrium conditions. The new properties that SARS-CoV-2 carries were incubated for a long time in microcosm refining its information content. Various animal species acted as transmitters of SARS-CoV-2 to human beings. In this perspective article, we argue that the infection ability of the new virus can correlate with its thermodynamic payload. Design: We suggest that by identifying the thermodynamic content and biophysical profile of the viruses’ proteins using a mathematical framework of nonlinear complex systems, we can simulate its molecular origin and design weapons for fighting it. We suggest discovering for artificial ‘decision-making’ nano-platforms that can decrypt the ‘crypted information code’ of viruses that permit their mutation process taking place not randomly but based on the self-assembly process of its nucleotides following the micro and macro environmental conditions. Main outcomes: Our proposition is to design nanoplatforms (decision making nanocarriers) that can carry thermodynamic variables that could interrupt the mutations, virulence, and proliferation. This approach is innovative and is a challenge that should be checked in the future. This concept needs generous funding by governments for supporting intelligence and innovative research projects. Mainly, we need solidarity between nations to shield the health of societies.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

Binder, W.H., Barragan, V., Menger, F.M. (2003). Domains and rafts in lipid membranes. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). 42:5802-5827. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200300586
Brillouin, L. (1962). Science and Information Theory. Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1962. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3057866
Crevecoeur, G.U. (2019) Entropy growth and information gain in operating organized systems. AIP Adv 9:125041. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5128315
Demetzos, C. (2016). Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. Fundamentals and Practical Applications. Springer Science+Business Media Singapore. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0791-0
García-Iriepa, C., Hognon, C., Francés-Monerris, A., Iriepa, I., Miclot, T., Barone, G., Monari, A., Marazzi, M. (2020). Thermodynamics of the Interaction between the Spike Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 and the Receptor of Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. Effects of Possible Ligands. J Phys Chem Lett 11:9272-9281. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02203
Konstantinidi, A.,Chountoulesi, M., Naziris, N., Sartori, B., Amenitsch, H., Mali, G., Čendak, T., Plakantonaki, M., Triantafyllakou, I., Tselios, T. et al. (2020). The boundary lipid around DMPC-spanning influenza A M2 transmembrane domain channels: Its structure and potential for drug accommodation. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 1862:183156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2019.183156
Mainzer, K. (2007). Thinking in Complexity, Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition ed. Springer, New York.
Markose, S.M. (2021) Genomic Intelligence as Über Bio-Cybersecurity: The Gödel Sentence in Immuno-Cognitive Systems. Entropy 23:405. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/e23040405
Menachery, V.D., Yount, B.L., Debbink, K., Agnihothram, S., Gralinski, L.E., Plante, J.A., et al. (2015). A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Nat Med 21:1508-1513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3985
Popovic, M., Minceva, M. (2020) .A thermodynamic insight into viral infections: do viruses in a lytic cycle hijack cell metabolism due to their low Gibbs energy? Heliyon 6:e03933. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03933
Serrano-Solís, V. and José, M.V. (2013). Flow of Information during an Evolutionary Process: The Case of Influenza A Viruses. Entropy 15:3065-3087. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/e15083065
Shang, J., Ye, G., Shi, K., Wan, Y., Luo, C., Aihara, H., Geng, Q., Auerbach, A., Li, F. (2020). Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. Nature 58:221-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2179-y
Shannon, C.E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell Syst Techn J 27:379-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x
Szilard, L. (1929). Über die Entropieverminderung in einem thermodynamischen System bei Eingriffen intelligenter Wesen. Zeitschr Physik 53:840-856. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01341281
The Economist (2020). The politics of pandemics. March 14th-20th. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2020/03/12/the-politics-of-pandemics
Yang, P., Wang, X. (2020). COVID-19: a new challenge for human beings. Cell Mol Immunol 17: 555-557. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0407-x
Dimitrios Vlachakis, Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biotechnology, School of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens

University Research Institute of Maternal and Child Health & Precision Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Greece.

School of Informatics, Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, King's College London, Strand, London, UK.

How to Cite

Demetzos, C., Vlamos, P., & Vlachakis, D. (2022). Perspectives to fight viruses. The example of Sars-CoV-2. Proceedings of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/peasa.16